Philosophy is the systematic attempt to understand reality through a process of rational reflection and deduction. The first two modules are designed to provide students with a firm grounding in the historical traditions of philosophy from antiquity all the way through to the modern period. They cover contemporary Western philosophy and the history of philosophy in the Islamic world. In the third year, students begin a two-year long Arabic taught course on traditional Islamic philosophy based on Allāma Ṭabāṭabāʾī’s masterpiece, Bidāyat al-Ḥikma.